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Welfare Study: Vitamin 2 Minutes Medicine

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2 Minute Medicine is pleased to announce that we are launching Wellness Check, a new series aimed at examining new evidence-based research on wellness. Each week, we report on articles that address different aspects of well-being, including (but not limited to) nutrition, sleep, reproductive health, substance use, and mental health. This week, we’re looking at the latest evidence-based updates on nutrition.

Sleep reduces energy consumption and weight in overweight adults

1. In this study, individualized sleep hygiene counseling was sufficient to extend sleep duration in participants who did not have sufficient sleep duration.

2. In addition, prolongation of sleep duration was related to daily energy consumption and weight loss.

Evidence rating: 2 (Good)

Obesity is a growing public health concern affecting both adults and children. Regular sleep deprivation (<7 hours) has been linked to adverse health effects and has also been shown to be a risk factor for obesity. However, it is not clear whether prolonged sleep can directly alter the energy intake and weight of overweight adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of sleep prolongation on daily energy consumption and weight, with overweight (25-29.9 year old BMI) and 80 adult (21-40 year old) groups sleeping less than 6.5 hours a night. in a. in the last 6 months. Participants received random individualized sleep hygiene advice with the goal of extending sleep to 8.5 hours, or regular sleep schedule (control group). Sleep patterns were constantly monitored by wrist actigraphy. They ruled out sleep apnea, insomnia, or night shifts. The main result was a change in daily energy consumption within two weeks. The results showed that the intervention resulted in an average length of sleep of 1.2 hours. Compared to the control group, the sleep-prolonged group reduced their daily energy intake (-270 kcal) and weight (-0.87 kg). However, this study was limited by short study periods (2 weeks) and small sample sizes. Therefore, it is important to consider whether changes in sleep duration and, consequently, changes in energy consumption and weight reduction can be tolerated over time and in participants from multiple socioeconomic backgrounds. However, the results of this study suggest that promoting sleep enough as an intervention in the lifestyle of obesity has the potential benefit.   Weight loss and lifestyle interventions significantly reduce the severity of sleep apnea 1. In this study, comprehensive lifestyle interventions significantly reduced the severity of sleep apnea obstruction by 6 months at the end of the intervention.

2. More than 50% of the patients in the intervention group did not require continuous positive respiratory pressure therapy at the end of the intervention and 6 months later.

Evidence rating: 1 (excellent)

Obesity is a growing public health crisis and a risk factor for many diseases. Specifically, sleep apnea is the leading cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), affecting 936 million adults. However, it has not been well studied whether strategies aimed at obesity, such as weight loss and lifestyle interventions, can directly improve the severity of OSA.

This randomized control trial was conducted in Granada, Spain, from 1 AprilstUntil October 23, 2019rd 2020. The study found that weight loss and multi-lifestyle interventions in OSA severity and associated morbidity in 89 obese (BMI> 25), Spanish men aged 18 to 65 years with moderate or severe OSA received constant positive pressure. CPAP) therapy. 40 participants were randomized to receive regular care (CPAP therapy alone) and 49 to receive regular care with 8-week lifestyle interventions such as eating behavior counseling, aerobic exercise, sleep and quitting alcohol, and smoking. Patients with weight loss programs or a psychological / psychiatric disorder were excluded. The main outcome was changes in OSA severity, measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at the end of the intervention and 6 months after the intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in sleep-related outcomes, body weight, cardiometabolic risk, and health-related quality of life.

The results showed that compared to the control group, the patients in the intervention group had a greater decrease in AHI (51% reduction) at the end of the intervention and a permanent reduction (57%) at 6 months after the intervention. A proportion of patients in the intervention group were able to stop using CPAP therapy at the end of the intervention (45%), and an even higher proportion after 6 months of intervention (61.8%). Patients in the intervention group also had improved secondary outcomes, including weight loss (mean difference in the -6.8 kg group) and improved blood pressure (mean in the -6.4 mmHg group). However, this study was limited by the homogeneity of the patient population and was difficult to generalize to female or Spanish-speaking patients. However, the results strongly support the inclusion of lifestyle interventions as a future therapeutic strategy for OSA.

 

The green Mediterranean diet reduced age-related brain atrophy

1. In this study, participants over the age of 50 had more brain atrophy in 18 months compared to younger participants.

2. In addition, participants in the Green-Mediterranean diet had reduced brain volume loss compared with participants in the standard Mediterranean diet or a healthy diet.

Evidence rating: 1 (excellent)

Long-standing research has shown that the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of mortality and cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Based on the Mediterranean diet, the green-Mediterranean diet completely replaces red meat with plant proteins and more complementary foods rich in polyphenols, such as mangoes. However, very few clinical trials have evaluated the effectiveness of the green-Mediterranean diet in providing more health benefits.

This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of Green-Mediterranean (Green-MED) diet on the level of brain atrophy associated with age in the traditional Mediterranean diet (MED) or normal healthy diet (HDG). 294 middle-aged patients (mean age 51 years, 88% men) were randomly assigned 1: 1: 1 to each group of obese individuals. Patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction, active cancer, or pregnancy were excluded. Changes in brain volume, especially the hippocampus, were assessed using MRI of the entire brain 18 months after the start of the diet. The main result was a level of hippocampal volume loss.

Compared to the HDG group (-1.3%), both MED (-0.78%) and green-MED (-0.8%) participants had a milder atrophy of the hippocampus. Specifically, reducing the consumption of red meat and increasing the consumption of foods high in polyphenols, such as walnuts (both MED and green-MED) and Mankai (only green-MED), are all associated with a weakened hippocampal volume. However, this study was limited by the small size of its sample and the predominance of male-dominated participants, and suggests that the results may not be generalized to women, younger people, or people without obesity. However, given the environmental impact of animal-based food production, it would also be of interest to the more general population that this diet may have health benefits, as well as a significant impact on environmental sustainability.

 

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