In a recent study published in the journal Cellthe researchers looked at the link between growth in human survival and metabolic pathways.
Much research has been done on the relationship between nutrients and cell responses in humans. However, extensive research is needed to determine the amount, types, and combinations of nutrients that can promote healthy eating.
The researchers looked at the impact of specific foods on the response pathways responsible for regulating human disease and aging.
Diets that increased protein and amino acid levels, such as methionine, were most effective in improving growth hormone (GH) signaling and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels. This, in turn, reduced the lifespan of rodents by stimulating the aging axis, increasing the circulating IGF-1 levels. Notably, the IGF-1 levels of people who consume high-protein diets compared to those who consume low-protein diets. In addition, GH and GH receptor mutations that reduce the level of the growth gene extended the lifespan by between 35% and 40%.
Notably, GH and GH receptor (GHR) deficiencies reduced circulating IGF-1 levels, which served as a major driver of human growth. This significant decline and a decrease in insulin levels due to decreased GHR levels may lead to a reduction in GHR signaling, resulting in an extension of duration. It is noteworthy that compared to wild-type mice, mice with a lower copy of the IGF-1R gene lived 16% to 33% more, and mice with mutations in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) also lived 16% more. 30% more.
In addition, mutations found in rapamycin S6 kinase (TOR-S6K) or GH-IGF-1 increased the duration and duration of health. In addition, people with mutations in the GHR gene showed protection against age-related diseases. Notably, the incidence of cancer in GHR-deficient individuals in Ecuador was significantly low. In addition, these individuals also reported a low incidence of diabetes despite a high prevalence of diabetes in this population, probably due to increased insulin sensitivity in individuals.
The endocrine sugar axis
Sugars have also been shown to play a critical role in signaling, and as a result, the aging process is accelerated. The group reported that the interruption of type 5 adenyl cyclase (AC), mainly seen in the brain and heart, increased the median life expectancy by 30% and reduced the incidence of cardiomyopathy in mice. In addition, male mice were associated with a longer duration of protein kinase A (PKA) RIIb subunit rupture, lower fasting glucose and insulin levels, and a lower incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy.
Caloric reduction (CR) in humans
CR resulted in a reduction in total body weight and loss of adiposity, resulting in higher levels of fat-free mass in proportion to total body mass in people on a CR regimen. Associations were also found between increased CR and insulin sensitivity, lower risk of cardiovascular disease, and improved liver health. In addition, this indicated a delay in aging, which was verified by a methylation clock.
The group noted key processes for transition to a healthy state include autophagy, proteostasis, involvement of gene regulatory mechanisms including ribonucleic acid (RNA) processing, growth signal changes including translation and synthetic pathways, and energy metabolism and fuel lipid modification. use. This indicated that the duration was dependent on a reduction in growth pathway activity and a change in metabolic processes associated with fasting conditions.
In addition, the group examined the health benefits of fasting, as well as how each type of fasting affects health, disease risk factors, and duration.
The regimen used in the studies consisted of a time-limited eating (TRE) diet with a feeding window of eight to 10 hours per day, lasting four to 12 weeks, and a TRE set at five days or more per week. Almost all studies reported a reduction in weight and adiposity or waist circumference among people established by TRE. Improvements in factors related to cardiovascular disease were also reported. TREs with a six-hour feeding period were also effective in increasing insulin sensitivity.
Several studies have also reported that the link between longer daily fasting is with skipping breakfast and increasing the death rate. Another way for TREs that participants had to fast every other day was to improve cardiovascular markers, reduce trunk fat, improve fat and muscle ratio, and improve b-hydroxybutyrate levels.
The group found that a low but sufficient protein level or a normal protein level with high legume intake, which resulted in lower intake of methionine and other amino acids, helped reduce aging activity. GHR, insulin, IGF-1 and TOR-S6K signaling. However, for people over the age of 65, a low-protein diet did not show any reduction in IGF-1 levels and instead led to a loss of muscle mass.
Overall, the findings of the study highlighted the importance of a long-term diet in improving standard health care. Researchers believe that this diet can prevent morbidity and improve health until old age.